Experimental lifecycle

This is one of the main ways to write data with googlesheets4. This function writes a data frame into a (work)sheet inside a (spread)Sheet. The target sheet is styled as a table:

  • Special formatting is applied to the header row, which holds column names.

  • The first row (header row) is frozen.

  • The sheet's dimensions are set to "shrink wrap" the data.

If no existing Sheet is specified via ss, this function delegates to gs4_create() and the new Sheet's name is randomly generated. If that's undesirable, call gs4_create() directly to get more control.

If no sheet is specified or if sheet doesn't identify an existing sheet, a new sheet is added to receive the data. If sheet specifies an existing sheet, it is effectively overwritten! All pre-existing values, formats, and dimensions are cleared and the targeted sheet gets new values and dimensions from data.

This function goes by two names, because we want it to make sense in two contexts:

  • write_sheet() evokes other table-writing functions, like readr::write_csv(). The sheet here technically refers to an individual (work)sheet (but also sort of refers to the associated Google (spread)Sheet).

  • sheet_write() is the right name according to the naming convention used throughout the googlesheets4 package.

write_sheet() and sheet_write() are synonyms and you can use either one. The first release of googlesheets used a sheets_ prefix everywhere, so we had sheets_write(). It still works, but it's deprecated and will go away rather swiftly.

sheet_write(data, ss = NULL, sheet = NULL)

write_sheet(data, ss = NULL, sheet = NULL)



A data frame. If it has zero rows, we send one empty pseudo-row of data, so that we can apply the usual table styling. This empty row goes away (gets filled, actually) the first time you send more data with sheet_append().


Something that identifies a Google Sheet: its file ID, a URL from which we can recover the ID, an instance of googlesheets4_spreadsheet (returned by gs4_get()), or a dribble, which is how googledrive represents Drive files. Processed through as_sheets_id().


Sheet to write into, in the sense of "worksheet" or "tab". You can identify a sheet by name, with a string, or by position, with a number.


The input ss, as an instance of sheets_id

See also


if (gs4_has_token()) { df <- data.frame( x = 1:3, y = letters[1:3] ) # specify only a data frame, get a new Sheet, with a random name ss <- write_sheet(df) read_sheet(ss) # clean up googledrive::drive_trash(ss) # create a Sheet with some initial, placeholder data ss <- gs4_create( "sheet-write-demo", sheets = list(alpha = data.frame(x = 1), omega = data.frame(x = 1)) ) # write df into its own, new sheet sheet_write(df, ss = ss) # write mtcars into the sheet named "omega" sheet_write(mtcars, ss = ss, sheet = "omega") # get an overview of the sheets sheet_properties(ss) # view your magnificent creation in the browser gs4_browse(ss) # clean up gs4_find("sheet-write-demo") %>% googledrive::drive_trash() }